关于加拿大学签和工签的持有人子女可以在加拿大免费就读公校的说明

关于外国人小孩在加拿大读书和收费的问题,先要从加拿大政府制度说起:加拿大是三级政府:联邦政府(Federal Government),省政府(Provincial Government)和市政府(Municipal Government). 所以法规和法院也相应地分为三级。

移民事务大部分由联邦掌握,省政府有提名权,但是最终都要由联邦审核后发放签证(Visas)或者许可(Permits)。留学生和国际工人(International Students and Workers)的小孩可以在加拿大上学,这是联邦移民法规定的:

IRPA 30(2)
任何未成年小孩,除非是不允许被工作和学习的临时居民的小孩,有权在幼儿园、小学或中学就读。
Every minor child in Canada, other than a child of a temporary resident not authorized to work or study, is authorized to study at the pre-school, primary or secondary level.

小孩读书是国际人权公约规定的基本权利,加拿大在这种事务上从来不会落后的。所以移民法直接赋予小孩这样的权利,他们甚至都不需要根据移民规程(IRPR)的有关规定申请学习许可。

读书归读书,移民法也并没有规定这些小孩可以免费读书。事实上,移民法并没有权利这么做,因为上学要不要钱,是省政府说了算的。

安大略教育法(Education Act)就有如下非常详细的规定:

(7) A board shall not charge a fee to,


(e) a person if his or her parent or someone else with lawful custody of him or her is in Canada,

(i) under a work permit or awaiting the determination of an application for a work permit under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (Canada),

(iv) in accordance with authorization under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (Canada) to study in Canada and is a full-time student at a university, college or institution in Ontario, including an institution that is an affiliate or federated institution of a university or college, that receives operating grants from the Government of Ontario

卑诗省学校法(School Act)有如下条文:

82 (1) A board must provide free of charge to every student of school age resident in British Columbia and enrolled in an educational program in a school operated by the board,

(a) instruction in an educational program sufficient to meet the general requirements for graduation,
(b) instruction in an educational program after the student has met the general requirements for graduation, and
(c) educational resource materials necessary to participate in the educational program.

(2) For the purposes of subsection (1), a student is resident in British Columbia if the student and the student’s guardian are ordinarily resident in British Columbia.

法律本身没有定义ordinarily resident,但是省政府定义了学签和工签持有人的小孩都是符合的:

A student who is in British Columbia with his or her guardian if the guardian meets one of the criteria set out below.  Guardians must be able to provide documentation to substantiate that they meet these criteria:

  • has been lawfully admitted to Canada for temporary residence and is authorised to work for a period of one year or more, and is or will be employed for at least 20 hours per week;
  • has been lawfully admitted to Canada and is authorised to study for a period of one year or more, and is enrolled in a degree or diploma programme at a public post-secondary institution in British Columbia or in a degree programme at a private post-secondary institution in British Columbia
  • has been lawfully admitted to Canada and is authorised to study for a period of one year or more and all of the following conditions apply:
    1. The parent or guardian is enrolled in an English as a Second Language (ESL) program of up to a year in duration at an institution that has an Education Quality Assurance Designation (EQA).  The ESL adult student will be deemed resident for up to one year only. Beyond one year, children of an ESL student will be considered international students and districts may charge international student fees.
    2. The parent or guardian has been accepted to a degree or diploma programme at a public post-secondary institution in British Columbia, or a degree program at a private post-secondary institution.
    3. The acceptance to the degree or diploma program is contingent upon the completion of an ESL program.
  • has been lawfully admitted to and is authorized to study in Canada, and has been awarded a multi-year scholarship that covers the cost of both tuition and living expenses for a post-secondary program that includes both an ESL component and a degree program component.  The ESL component must be completed at an institution that has an Education Quality Assurance (EQA) designation.
  • has been lawfully admitted to Canada and is participating in an educator exchange program with a public school in British Columbia.
  • is carrying out official duties under the authority of the Visiting Forces Act or as an accredited diplomatic agent, preclearance officer, consular officer or official representative in Canada of a foreign government with a consular post in British Columbia.

虽然只用安省和卑诗省举例,但其实几乎所有省份都可以让留学生或国际工人的小孩免费读书的。究其原因,大概是因为既然这些小孩有权利读书,父母即使不交学费,政府也有义务安排他们入学吧。

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